What is EDM machine? (Electrical Discharge Machining) and what are the types of it?
What is EDM machine? (Electrical Discharge Machining) and what are the types of it?

What is EDM machine? (Electrical Discharge Machining) and what are the types of it?

Electrical Discharge Machining or EDM is one of the more precise and accurate ways of machining as compared to traditional machining. Many industries have now incorporated EDM for numerous machining processes.

However, many people do not know about EDM. Hence, today we will discuss what is Electrical Discharge Machining and how does it work.

What is EDM machine?

As the name suggests, Electrical Discharge Machining is a way in which metals are removed through Electrical Discharge or electrical spark from a workpiece of desired length and shape. In EDM, no mechanical force is needed, nor are heavy tools used for the process. Hence, it greatly differs from the traditional machining ways.

Moreover, EDM is suitable for any conductive material and is a highly controlled machining technique. In addition, some metals like Titanium and Tungsten are difficult to extract and be shaped according to needs and wants. It is where the traditional machining method fails, and Electrical Discharge Machining comes in.

Furthermore, EDM is safe as compared to traditional machining. Taiwan manufacturers make some of the best Electrical Discharge Machine that offers reliability and extreme precision.

How does Electrical Discharge Machining Work?

The whole phenomenon is based on electricity. But to elaborate it a bit, we can describe the EDM process as a thermal process. The whole metal removing the process from the workpiece is done using electrical sparks. These electrical sparks are pass through the electrode, which is a conductor.

Moreover, these electrical sparks are given in a pulsating manner, sort of like Alternating Current. It is done in this manner, so the whole process is done in a controlled manner. However, when removing metals from conductive material through the EDM process, the electrode and the workpiece have to be water-logged into a non-conductive fluid.

Many Electrical Discharge manufacturers, including manufacturers in Taiwan, the hub of technology, recommend doing this.

It is done because electrical discharges can flow in a controlled manner. Moreover, dielectric fluid is highly resistant to electricity and has a higher temperature coefficient. So, it absorbs all the heat generated from the EDM process and acts as a coolant.

Hence, the dielectric fluid helps the machine retain its longevity and allows the process to be done more efficiently.

Types of EDM machine

  • Wire Cutting Electrical Discharge Machining:

The use of thin wires to cut objects can also be referred to as wire erosion, wire burning EDM. In this type, the wire is used as an electrode, and the wire is continuously fed from the automatic feed with the spool during machining. If you need to carry out the cutting process in the middle of the object, you can use the small hole to drill the EDM to punch the object, then pass the wire through the hole, further electric discharge machining, the wire can be fixed by the diamond guide, the liquid is used Ionized water, while wires are usually made of brass or copper.

  • Sinker Discharge Machining:

The sinker EDM, also known as a  traditional EDM. The use of die EDM allows the user to produce complex shapes. This method requires the electrode to be pre-machined into the desired shape and then the electrode is sunk into the article to form a negative of its original shape.

  • Hole Drilling Electric Discharge Machining:

This process is used for drilling, and the EDM is capable of machining very small deep holes compared to conventional drilling methods. Besides, EDM drilling does not require any debarring. During this process, the electrodes are tubular and the dielectric fluid is fed through the electrodes themselves.

Advantages of Electrical Discharge Machining

There are numerous advantages of Electrical Discharge Machining 

  1. Suitable for machining extremely hard conductive materials.
  2. Workpieces are extracted without any deformation. Deformation on the workpieces can occur with traditional machining methods as it involves high heat.
  3. Can move along all the 3 axes, which increases precision as well as the same time.
  4. Cost-effective machining method.


The above-specified is a short but comprehensive guide about what Electrical Discharge Machining is and how it works. You can visit EDM manufacturers' websites for specifications related to EDM machine, such as Taiwan EDM machine manufacturers. Make sure to follow all the necessary precautions before operating the machine. To learn more about Electrical Discharge Machining, contact OSCARMAX today!


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